Esophagitis is frequently caused by the backflow of acid-containing fluid from the stomach to the esophagus, a condition called gastroesophageal reflux. An autoimmune disorder called eosinophilic esophagitis also causes this condition.
The following increase your risk of esophagitis:
Surgery or radiation to the chest (for example, treatment for lung cancer)
Taking certain medications without plenty of water especially alendronate, tetracycline, doxycycline, and vitamin C
Persons with weakened immune systems due to HIV and certain medications (such as corticosteroids) may develop infections that lead to esophagitis.
Esophageal infection may be due to fungi, yeast (especially Candida infections), or viruses such as herpes or cytomegalovirus.
The infection or irritation may cause the esophagus to become inflamed. Ulcers may form. Symptoms may include:
Removal of a piece of tissue from the esophagus for examination (biopsy)
Treatment depends on the specific cause. Reflux disease may require medications to reduce acid. Infections will require antibiotics.
The disorders that cause esophagitis usually respond to treatment.
If untreated, esophagitis may cause severe discomfort, and eventual scarring (stricture) of the esophagus. This can cause difficulty swallowing food or medications.
A condition called Barrett's esophagus can develop after years of gastroesophageal reflux. Rarely, Barrett's esophagus may lead to cancer of the esophagus.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of esophagitis.
Orlando R. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 140.
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.