Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe deeply or cough
Signs and tests
Persons with suspected pneumonia should have a complete medical evaluation, including a thorough physical exam and a chest x-ray -- especially since the physical exam may not always distinguish pneumonia from acute bronchitis or other respiratory infections.
Depending on the severity of illness, other tests may be done, including:
Antibiotics do not treat viral pneumonia. Medication only works against influenza pneumonia. These medications are called antivirals.
Treatment may also involve:
Use of humidified air
A hospital stay may be necessary to prevent dehydration and to help with breathing if the infection is serious.
You are more likely to be admitted to the hospital if you:
Are older than 65 years or a young child
Are unable to care for yourself at home, or are unable to eat or drink
Have another serious medical problem, such as a heart or kidney problem
Have been taking antibiotics at home and are not getting better
Have severe symptoms
However, many people can be treated at home.
You can take these steps at home:
Control your fever with aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen or naproxen), or acetaminophen. DO NOT give aspirin to children.
Do not take cough medicines without first talking to your doctor. Cough medicines may make it harder for your body to cough up the extra sputum.
Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.
Get a lot of rest. Have someone else do household chores.
Most cases of viral pneumonia are mild and get better without treatment within 1 - 3 weeks, but some cases are more serious and require hospitalization.
More serious infections can result in respiratory failure, liver failure, and heart failure. Sometimes, bacterial infections occur during or just after viral pneumonia, which may lead to more serious forms of pneumonia.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if symptoms of viral pneumonia develop.
Wash your hands often, especially after blowing your nose, going to the bathroom, diapering a baby, and before eating or preparing foods.
Don't smoke. Tobacco damages your lungs' ability to ward off infection.
Vaccines may help prevent pneumonia in children, the elderly, and people with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, or other chronic conditions.
A drug called palivizumab (Synagis) is given to some children under 24 months old to prevent pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus.
Flu vaccine prevents pneumonia and other problems caused by the influenza virus. It must be given each year to protect against new virus strains.
If your immune system is weak, stay away from crowds. Ask visitors who have a cold to wear a mask.
Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:S27-S72.
Donowitz GR. Acute pneumonia. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 64.
Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.