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Flaxseed oil

Also listed as: Linseed oil

Overview
Uses
Dietary Sources
Available Forms
 
How to Take It
Precautions
Possible Interactions
Supporting Research

Overview

Flaxseed oil comes from the seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, L.). Flaxseed oil contains both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, which are needed for health. Flaxseed oil contains the essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which the body converts into eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oil. Some researchers think that flaxseed oil might have some of the same benefits as fish oil, but the body is not very efficient at converting ALA into EPA and DHA. And the benefits of ALA, EPA, and DHA are not necessarily the same. Omega-3 fatty acids, usually from fish oil, have been shown to reduce inflammation and help prevent certain chronic diseases, such as heart disease and arthritis. Studies are mixed about whether flaxseed oil is useful for the same conditions.

Getting a good balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet is important. These essential fats are both examples of polyunsaturated fatty acids, or PUFAs. Omega-3 fatty acids help reduce inflammation, while many omega-6 fatty acids tend to contribute to inflammation. A healthy diet should consist of roughly 2 - 4 times fewer omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. The typical American diet, however, tends to contain 14 - 25 times more omega-6 fatty acids than omega-3 fatty acids. Many researchers believe this is a significant factor in the rising rate of inflammatory disorders in the United States.

Flaxseed -- but not flaxseed oil -- also contains a group of chemicals called lignans that may play a role in the prevention of cancer.

See also: Flaxseed

Uses

Clinical studies suggest that flaxseed oil and other omega-3 fatty acids may be helpful in treating a variety of conditions.

High cholesterol

People who follow a Mediterranean diet tend to have an increased HDL, or "good" cholesterol level. The Mediterranean diet emphasizes fish and healthy fats, such as olive oil, and has a healthy balance between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Whole grains, root and green vegetables, daily portions of fruit, fish and poultry, olive and canola oils, and ALA (from flaxseed, flaxseed oil, and walnuts) are also part of the Mediterranean diet. Red meat and saturated fats are not part of the diet.

However, whether taking flaxseed or flaxseed oil as a supplement can help lower cholesterol is up for debate. Some small studies show it has beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, but at least one double blind study found no evidence that it lowered cholesterol.

Heart disease

Eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts or legumes, and ALA rich foods may substantially reduce the recurrence of heart disease. One of the best ways to help prevent and treat heart disease is to eat a diet that is low in saturated and trans fat and rich in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats (including omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed and fish). Evidence suggests that people who eat an ALA rich diet are less likely to suffer a fatal heart attack. ALA may reduce heart disease risks through a variety of ways, including making platelets less “sticky,” reducing inflammation, promoting blood vessel health, and reducing risk of arrhythmia (irregular heart beat).

Several human studies also suggest that diets rich in omega-3 fatty acids (including ALA) may lower blood pressure.

However, it’s not clear whether taking flaxseed oil as a supplement would have the same effect on heart health.

Sjogren’s syndrome

Preliminary evidence that suggests taking 1 - 2 g of flaxseed per day can improve the symptoms of dry eye in people with Sjogren’s syndrome. Sjogren’s syndrome is an autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks glands in the body that produce moisture, like salivary and tear glands.

Cancer

Studies suggest that flaxseed oil may help prevent the growth of breast tumors. In one Canadian Study, researchers discovered that flaxseed oil prevented breast tumor growth, likely through ALA content. Patients with breast cancer should not take any nutritional supplement without their doctor's approval.

Dietary Sources

Flaxseed oil comes from the seed of the flax plant. It contains 50 - 60% omega-3 fatty acids in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). That is more than is contained in fish oil, but the body is not very efficient at converting ALA into the omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils. So ALA from flaxseed may not have the same benefit as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from fish oil.

Available Forms

Flaxseed oil is available in liquid and softgel capsule forms. Like any oil, flaxseed oil may turn rancid if it is not refrigerated. Flaxseed oil requires special packaging because it is easily destroyed by heat, light, and oxygen. The highest quality flaxseed products are made using fresh pressed seeds, bottled in dark containers, and processed at low temperatures in the absence of light, extreme heat, or oxygen.

Be sure to buy flaxseed oil supplements made by reputable companies who certify that their products are free of heavy metals, such as lead and mercury.

How to Take It

The dose depends on how much fatty acids you get in your diet and which condition you are taking flaxseed oil for.

Pediatric

Talk to your doctor before giving flaxseed oil to a child under 18.

Adult

There's no recommended dose for flaxseed oil. The best dose for you depends on a number of factors and should be determined in consultation with your physician. Flaxseed oil: Take 1 - 2 tablespoonfuls daily, or 1 - 2 capsules daily. Flaxseed oil is often used in a liquid form, which contains approximately 7 grams of ALA per 15 mL (1 tbsp), and contains about 130 calories.

Precautions

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Flaxseed may slow down the rate your body absorbs oral medications or other nutrients if taken at the same time. Try to avoid taking flaxseed at the same time as medications and other supplements.

People with diabetes or schizophrenia may not be able to convert ALA to EPA and DHA, the forms more readily used in the body. People with either condition should get omega-3 fatty acids from dietary sources rich in EPA and DHA, such as fish.

Although studies have found that eating fish (which contains the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA) regularly may reduce the risk of macular degeneration, a recent study including 2 large groups of men and women found that diets rich in ALA may substantially increase the risk of this eye disease. More research is needed. Until then, people with macular degeneration should get omega-3 fatty acids from sources of EPA and DHA (such as fish or fish oil), rather than ALA.

Fish and fish oil may protect against prostate cancer, but ALA may be associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in men. More research is needed, but men with prostate cancer should get omega-3 fatty acids from sources of EPA and DHA (such as fish or fish oil), rather than ALA.

Possible Interactions

If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid or ALA) or other omega-3 fatty acids without first talking to your health care provider.

Blood thinning medications (anticoagulants) -- Omega-3 fatty acids may strengthen the effects of blood thinning medications, including aspirin, warfarin (Coumadin), and clopedigrel (Plavix). While the combination of aspirin and omega-3 fatty acids may help treat heart disease, they should not be taken together without the supervision of a health care provider.

Blood sugar lowering medications -- Taking omega-3 fatty acid supplements may increase fasting blood sugar levels, which may increase your need for the medication(s). Use omega-3 fatty acid supplements with caution if taking blood sugar lowering medications, such as:

  • Glipizide (Glucotrol and Glucotrol XL)
  • Glyburide (Micronase or Diabeta)
  • Glucophage (Metformin)
  • Insulin

Cyclosporine -- Taking omega-3 fatty acids during cyclosporine (Sandimmune) therapy may reduce toxic side effects, such as high blood pressure and kidney damage, associated with this medication in transplant patients.

Etretinate and topical steroids -- Adding omega-3 fatty acids (specifically EPA) to the drug therapy etretinate (Tegison) and topical corticosteroids may improve symptoms of psoriasis.

Cholesterol lowering medications -- Increasing the amount of omega-3 fatty acids in your diet may help a group of cholesterol lowering medications known as statins to work more effectively. They include:

  • Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
  • Lovastatin (Mevacor)
  • Simvastatin (Zocor)

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) -- In an animal study, treatment with omega-3 fatty acids reduced the risk of ulcers from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen (Motrin or Advil) and naproxen (Alleve or Naprosyn). More research is needed to see whether omega-3 fatty acids would have the same effects in people.

Supporting Research

Angerer P, von Schacky C. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the cardiovascular system. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2000;11(1):57-63.

Balk EM, Lichtenstein AH, Chung M et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum markers of cardiovascular disease risk: A systematic review. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Nov;189(1):19-30.

Barceló-Coblijn G, Murphy EJ, Othman R, Moghadasian MH, Kashour T, Friel JK. Flaxseed oil and fish-oil capsule consumption alters human red blood cell n-3 fatty acid composition: a multiple-dosing trial comparing 2 sources of n-3 fatty acid. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Sep;88(3):801-9.

Barre DE, Mizier-Barre KA, Griscti O, Hafez K. Flaxseed oil supplementation increases plasma F1-phytoprostanes in healthy men. J Nutr. 2009; 139(10):1890-5.

Bassett CM, Rodriguez-Leyva D, Pierce GN. Experimental and clinical research findings on the cardiovascular benefits of consuming flaxseed. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2009;34(5):965-74.

Bays HE. Safety considerations with omega-3 Fatty Acid therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2007;99(6A):S35-43.

Belluzzi A, Boschi S, Brignola C, Munarini A, Cariani C, Miglio F. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(suppl):339S-342S.

Boelsma E, Hendriks HF. Roza L. Nutritional skin care: health effects of micronutrients and fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(5):853-864.

Bradbury J, Myers SP, Oliver C et al. An adaptogenic role for omega-3 fatty acids in stress; a randomised placebo controlled double blind intervention study (pilot)ISRCTN22569553. Nutr J. 2004 Nov 28;3:20.

Burgess J, Stevens L, Zhang W, Peck L. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 71(suppl):327S-330S.

Caron MF, White CM. Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic properties of dietary supplements. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(4):481-487.

Cho E, Hung S, Willet WC, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(2):209-218.

De Spirt S, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Sies H, Bejot M, Maurette JM, Heinrich U. Intervention with flaxseed and borage oil supplements modulates skin condition in women. Br J Nutr. 2009 Feb;101(3):440-5.

Dewailly E, Blanchet C, Lemieux S, et al. n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors among the Inuit of Nunavik. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;74(4):464-473.

Dichi I, Frenhane P, Dichi JB, Correa CR, Angeleli AY, Bicudo MH, et al. Comparison of omega-3 fatty acids and sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis. Nutrition. 2000;16:87-90.

Duda MK, O'Shea KM, Tintinu A, Xu W, Khairallah RJ, Barrows BR, et al. Fish oil, but not flaxseed oil, decreases inflammation and prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Cardiovasc Res. 2009 Feb 1;81(2):319-27.

Fatty fish consumption and ischemic heart disease mortality in older adults: The cardiovascular heart study. Presented at the American Heart Association's 41st annual conference on cardiovascular disease epidemiology and prevention. AHA. 2001.

Fenton WS, Dicerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2001;158(12):2071-2074.

Frangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P et al. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:46-50.

Freeman VL, Meydani M, Yong S, Pyle J, Flanigan RC, Waters WB, Wojcik EM. Prostatic levels of fatty acids and the histopathology of localized prostate cancer. J Urol. 2000;164(6):2168-2172.

Freund-Levi YF, Eriksdotter-Jonhagen M, Cederholm T, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid treatment in 174 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease: OmegAD Study. Arch Neurol. 2006;63:1402-8.

Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, van Deursen C, et al. Nutritional supplementation with N-3 fatty acids and antioxidants in patients with Crohn's disease in remission: effects on antioxidant status and fatty acid profile. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2000;6(2):77-84.

Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain. Pain. 2007 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print].

Hall MN, Campos H, Li H, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ma J. Blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, aspirin, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(2):314-21.

Hooper L, Thompson R, Harrison R et al. Omega 3 fatty acids for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;CD003177.

Itomura M, Hamazaki K, Sawazaki S et al. The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr Biochem. 2005;16:163-71.

Jeschke MG, Herndon DN, Ebener C, Barrow RE, Jauch KW. Nutritional intervention high in vitamins, protein, amino acids, and omega-3 fatty acids improves protein metabolism during the hypermetabolic state after thermal injury. Arch Surg. 2001;136:1301-1306.

Krauss RM, Eckel RH, Howard B, et al. AHA Scientific Statement: AHA Dietary guidelines Revision 2000: A statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2000;102(18):2284-2299.

Kremer JM. N-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;(suppl 1):349S-351S.

Kris-Etherton P, Eckel RH, Howard BV, St. Jeor S, Bazzare TL. AHA Science Advisory: Lyon Diet Heart Study. Benefits of a Mediterranean-style, National Cholesterol Education Program/American Heart Association Step I Dietary Pattern on Cardiovascular Disease. Circulation. 2001;103:1823.

Newcomer LM, King IB, Wicklund KG, Stanford JL. The association of fatty acids with prostate cancer risk. Prostate. 2001;47(4):262-268.

Okamoto M, Misunobu F, Ashida K, et al. Effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids compared with n-6 fatty acids on bronchial asthma. Int Med. 2000;39(2):107-111.

Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2002;324(7335): 447-451.

Prasad K. Flaxseed and cardiovascular health. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2009;54(5):369-77.

Pruthi S, Thompson SL, Novotny PJ, Barton DL, Kottschade LA, Tan AD, Sloan JA, Loprinzi CL. Pilot evaluation of flaxseed for the management of hot flashes. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2007 Summer;5(3):106-12.

Richardson AJ, Puri BK. The potential role of fatty acids in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000;63(1/2):79-87.

Romano C, Cucchiara S, Barabino A et al. Usefulness of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in addition to mesalazine in maintaining remission in pediatric Crohn's disease: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;11:7118-21.

Seddon JM, Rosner B, Sperduto RD, Yannuzzi L, Haller JA, Blair NP, Willett W. Dietary fat and risk for advanced age-related macular degeneration. Arch Opthalmol. 2001;119(8):1191-1199.

Stark KD, Park EJ, Maines VA, et al. Effect of fish-oil concentrate on serum lipids in postmenopausal women receiving and not receiving hormone replacement therapy in a placebo-controlled, double blind trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;72:389-394.

Sundstrom B, Stalnacke K, Hagfors L et al. Supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids in patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Scand J Rheumatol. 2006;35:359-62.

Truan JS, Chen JM, Thompson Lu. Flaxseed oil reduces the growth of human breast tumors (MCF-7) at high levels of circulating estrogen. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54(10):1414-21.

Vaisman N, Kaysar N, Zaruk-Adasha Y, Pelled D, Brichon G, Zwingelstein G, Bodennec J. Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 May;87(5):1170-80.

Weinstock-Guttman B, Baier M, Park Y et al. Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:397-404.

Yuen AW, Sander JW, Fluegel D et al. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with chronic epilepsy: A randomized trial. Epilepsy Behav. 2005;7(2):253-8.


Review Date: 5/24/2011
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
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