Gingivitis is a form of periodontal disease. Periodontal disease is inflammation and infection that destroys the tissues that support the teeth, including the gums, the periodontal ligaments, and the tooth sockets (alveolar bone).
Gingivitis is due to the long-term effects of plaque deposits on your teeth. Plaque is a sticky material made of bacteria, mucus, and food debris that develops on the exposed parts of the teeth. It is a major cause of tooth decay.
If you do not remove plaque, it turns into a hard deposit called tartar (or calculus) that becomes trapped at the base of the tooth. Plaque and tartar irritate and inflame the gums. Bacteria and the toxins they produce cause the gums to become infected, swollen, and tender.
The following raise your risk for gingivitis:
Certain infections and body-wide (systemic) diseases
Pregnancy (hormonal changes increase the sensitivity of the gums)
Misaligned teeth, rough edges of fillings, and ill-fitting or unclean mouth appliances (such as braces, dentures, bridges, and crowns) Use of certain medications, including phenytoin, bismuth, and some birth control pills
Many people have some amount of gingivitis. It usually develops during puberty or early adulthood due to hormonal changes. It may persist or recur frequently, depending on the health of your teeth and gums.
Bleeding gums (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing of the teeth)
Bright red or red-purple appearance to gums
Gums that are tender when touched, but otherwise painless
Call your dentist if you have red, swollen gums, especially if you have not had a routine cleaning and examination in the last 6 months.
Good oral hygiene is the best way to prevent gingivitis.
You should brush your teeth at least twice a day. You should floss at least once a day.
Your dentist may recommend brushing and flossing after every meal and at bedtime. Ask your dentist or dental hygienist to show you how to properly brush and floss your teeth.
Special devices may be recommended if you are prone to plaque deposits. They include special toothpicks, toothbrushes, water irrigation, or other devices. You still must brush and floss your teeth regularly.
Antiplaque or antitartar toothpastes or mouth rinses may also be recommended.
Regular professional tooth cleaning is important to remove plaque that may develop even with careful brushing and flossing. Many dentists recommend having the teeth professionally cleaned at least every 6 months.
Ferri FF. Ferri’s Clinical Advisor: Instant Diagnosis and Treatment. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2005:447-448.
Marx J. Rosen’s Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 5th ed. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2002:898.
American Academy of Periodontology. Parameter on plaque-induced gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2000;71:851-852.
Paul Fotek, DMD, Florida Institute for Periodontics & Dental lmplants, West Palm Beach, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.