Summary of Research Mission

mappr_team_12-15.jpgOur mission is to promote research that positively impacts the health of our community. We strive to accomplish this aim by reducing health disparities; enhancing access to primary care; and improving the quality of healthcare services. Research in our department is designed to be translational and rapidly disseminated into practice. We provide research opportunities for students and learners from a wide range of disciplines who are interested in primary care research or public health.

Research Interest: Community Health and Healthcare Disparities

Contact Information
Hazel Tapp, PhD - Research Director
Research Office:
Phone: 704-304-7120 | Fax: 704-304-7102
Department of Family Medicine: Phone: 704-304-7110
Mailing address: Department of Family Medicine 
2001 Vail Avenue Suite 400B
Charlotte, NC 28207
Faculty Research Interests

                                      

Hazel Tapp, PhD
Research Director

Dr. Tapp currently serves as Director of Research in the Department of Family Medicine at Carolinas HealthCare System, at the Center for Primary Care Research. Her research interests are in implementing improved delivery of care for patients with chronic diseases such as sickle cell disease, diabetes and asthma. As co-director of a practice-based research network (PBRN), the Mecklenburg Area Partnership for Primary Care Research, she works on several projects designed to use community based participatory research (CBPR) and implementation research to study improved outcomes for populations with chronic disease through implementation of evidence-based interventions. As PI on a PCORI patient-centered outcomes project designed to study the dissemination of shared decision making using participatory implementation strategies, Dr. Tapp is currently working with 4 Practice-based research networks and Medicaid across North Carolina to implement shared decision making for asthma patients across 30 practices. As a co-investigator on an AHRQ funded project to improve patient outcomes by improving quality of care for patients with asthma, she oversaw the development and implementation of a shared decision making toolkit across six ambulatory practices within Carolinas HealthCare System. Also, in partnership with community members, patients, community organizational representatives, providers, and other research team members, Dr. Tapp helped develop and actively serve as a participating member of several community advisory boards (CABs) and patient advisory board (PAB).

Recent Peer Reviewed Publications:

Allison Bickett and Hazel Tapp 2016 Accepted for publication. Anxiety and Diabetes: Innovative Approaches to Management in Primary Care. Experimental Biology and Medicine

Kelly Reeves, Yhenneko Taylor, Hazel Tapp, Lindsay Shade, Beth Burton, Cheryl Courtlandt, Tom Ludden, Michael Dulin 2016 Accepted for publication. Evaluation of a Pilot Asthma Care Program for Electronic Communication between School Health and a Healthcare System’s Electronic Medical Record. Applied Clinical Informatics Journal.

Emerson JF, Welch M, Rossman WE, Carek S, Ludden T, Templin M, Moore CG, Tapp H, Dulin MF, McWilliams A. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. IJERPH International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Accepted for publication 2015/2016

Kuhn L, Reeves K, Taylor Y, Tapp H, McWilliams A, Gunter A, Cleveland J, Dulin, M. Planning for Action: Impact of an Asthma Action Plan Decision Support Tool Integrated into an Electronic Medical Record at a Large Healthcare System. JABFM 2015 May-Jun;28(3):382-93.

Mowrer L, Tapp H, Ludden T, Kuhn LE, Reeves K, Courtlandt C, Hege, T Taylor, Y McWilliams A,  Dulin M. Patients’ and Providers’ Perceptions of Asthma and Asthma Care:  2015 A Qualitative Study. J of Asthma. 2015 May 15:1-8.

Tapp H, McWilliams A, Ludden T, Kuhn L, Taylor Y, Alkhazraji T, Halladay J, Derkowski D, Mohanan S, and Dulin M. Comparing traditional and participatory dissemination of a shared decision making intervention (ADAPT-NC).  2014; 9(1): 158. Implementation Science

Brenner, AT, Getrich CM, Pignone MP, Rhyne RL, Hoffman RM, McWilliams A, Urquieta de Hernandez B, Weaver MA, Tapp H, Harbi K, and Reuland DS.  Comparing the effect of a decision aid plus patient navigation with usual care on colorectal cancer screening completion in vulnerable populations: 2014 Jul 8;15:275.

Trials:

Tapp H, McWilliams A, Dulin MF Patient engagement and Informed decision making regarding medical imaging. North Carolina Medical Journal Mar-April 2014 74(2) 114-116.

Warren-Findlow J, Patel P, Hutchinson J, Tapp H. Kuhn L. and Dulin M. Assessing health literacy of hypertensive patients in a primary care setting using a self-administered questionnaire   The Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. 2014 Nov;25(4):1833-43

Mohanan S, Tapp H, McWilliams A, Dulin MF Obesity and Asthma: Pathophysiology and implications for diagnosis and management in primary care. Experimental Biology and Medicine 2014 April 9 2014

Tapp H, Kuhn L, Alkhazraji T, Steuerwald M, Ludden T, Wilson S, Mowrer L, Mohanan S, Dulin MF.  Adapting Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Methods to the Implementation of an Asthma Shared Decision Making Intervention in Ambulatory Practices Journal of Asthma 2014 May;51(4):380-90.

Tapp H, White L, Steuerwald M, Dulin M. Use of community-based participatory research in primary care to improve healthcare outcomes and disparities in care. Journal of Comparative effectiveness research 2013 2(4) 405-419.

Tapp H, Smith HA, Dixon JT, Ludden T, Dulin MF. Evaluating Primary Care Delivery Systems for an Uninsured Hispanic Immigrant Population. Family and Community Health. 2013 Jan;36(1):19-33

Warren-Findlow J, Basalik D, Dulin M, Tapp, H, Kuhn, L. Preliminary Validation of the Hypertension Self-Care Activity Level Effects (H-SCALE) and Clinical Blood Pressure Among Patients with Hypertension. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2013 15(9) 637–643

Phillips S, Gift M, Gelot S, Duong M, Tapp H Assessing the Relationship between the Level of Pain Control and Patient Satisfaction Journal of Pain Research. 2013(6) 683 - 689

Tapp H, Smith HA, Dixon JT, Ludden T, Dulin M. Evaluating Primary Care Delivery Systems for an Uninsured Hispanic Immigrant Population. Family and Community Health. 2013 Jan;36(1):19-33.

Dulin, MF, Tapp H. Communities Matter: The Relationship Between Neighborhoods and Health. North Carolina Medical Journal. 2012 73(5) 381-388 

Dulin MF,  Tapp H, Smith HA, Urquieta de Hernandez B, Coffman M,  Luddon T, Sorenson J, and Furuseth OJ. A Trans-disciplinary Approach to the Evaluation of  Social Determinants of Health in a Hispanic Population in BMC Public Health Sep 2012:769.

Tapp H, Philips S, Waxman D, Alexander M, Brown R, Hall M. Multidisciplinary Team Approach to Improved Chronic Care Management for Diabetic Patients in an Urban Safety Net Ambulatory Care Clinic. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine.Mar-April 2012:245-6.

Tapp H, Hebert L, Dulin MF. Comparative Effectiveness of Asthma Interventions within a Practice Based Research Network. Health Services Research 11:Aug 2011:188.

McWilliams A, Tapp H, Barker, J. Dulin MF. Cost Analysis of Emergency Department Utilization for Primary Care Services in Charlotte, North Carolina. North Carolina Medical Journal 2011;72(4):265-271

Dulin MF Tapp H Smith HA, de Hernandez BU and Furuseth OJ. A Community Participatory Approach to Improving Health in a Hispanic Population. Implementation Science April 2011:38. 

PRESENTATIONS

Tapp, H. Invited Presenter. Engaging Key Stakeholders as Research Partners. Patient Centered Outcomes Research Symposium.  Feb 2016 Washington University, St Louis, MI

Tapp, H and Mohanan, S. Perspectives on Partnerships formed to undertake Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Invited presentation First Annual Patient Centered Outcomes Research PCORI meeting Washington DC Oct 7-8 2015

Tapp, H Patient Engagement Summit “Shared Decision Making: Developing Expert Patients” San Diego Oct 12-13 2015

Tapp, H and Mohanan, S Annual Outcomes Research Day Panel: Researcher Physician Dyads November 4 2015 Carolinas HealthCare System.

O’Beirne M, Campbell-Voytal K, Dolor R, Donahue K, Love M, Mohanan S, Neale V, Tapp H.  “PBRN Research Best Practices:  Stakeholder Engagement”. Workshop presented at the 2015 North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG), Practice-based Research Network (PBRN) Conference, Bethesda Maryland, June 30, 2015.

O’Beirne M, Campbell-Voytal K, Dolor R, Donahue K, Love M, Mohanan S, Tapp H, Tobin J, Neale V.  “Advancing Good Practices in PBRN Research”.  Workshop presented at the annual meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG), Cancun, Mexico October 27, 2015.

Tapp H, Kuhn L, Ludden T, Reeves K, Taylor Y, Hege T, McWilliams A, Mohanan S, Welch M, Derkowski D. “Who Made the Decision Today? Engagement Strategies and Preliminary Results of a Randomized Shared Decision Making Dissemination Study.” North American Primary Care Research Group Conference. AHRQ. Cancun, Mexico. October 24-28, 2015. Poster presentation.

Tapp H, McCullum M, Mohanan S, Hege T. “The Patient, Provider and Researcher Tryad: Perspectives on Partnerships formed to undertake Patient-Centered Outcomes Research.” National Practice-Based Research Network Conference. AHRQ. Bethesda, MD. June 29-30, 2015. Oral presentation.

Tapp H, Johnson L, Kuhn L, Mohanan S, Hege T, Reeves K, Derkowski D, McWilliams A, Ludden T, Halladay J, Rees J, Mitchell M, Dolor R, Bray P, Coyne-Beasley T, Schmit K, Taylor L, Earls M. “Do Stakeholders Matter? The Impact of Pre-Award Engagement on the Implementation of a State-Wide Shared Decision Making Intervention.” National Practice-Based Research Network Conference. AHRQ. Bethesda, MD. June 29-30, 2015. Oral presentation.

Hernandez B, Taylor Y, Smith H, Sorenson J, McWilliams A, Coffman M, Schuch J, Avraham P, Pasquier V, Furuseth O, Simmons L, Tapp H, Dulin M. “Using CBPR to engage a transitioning immigrant community in improving access to primary care and increasing social capital.” National Practice-Based Research Network Conference. AHRQ. Bethesda, MD. June 29-30, 2015. Oral presentation.

Tapp H. Pre Conference Workshop at American Thoracic Society Annual Meeting. Implementation of Asthma Treatment Shared Decision-Making Interventions through Practice Based Research Networks – Implementation science: applications to quality improvement, guidelines implementation, and research May 16, 2015, Denver, CO

Tapp H, Kuhn, L, Mahabaleshwarkar, R, Dulin, M. Shared Decision Making Improves Outcomes for Children with Asthma. American Thoracic Society 2015 May 18 Denver CO. 

Tapp H, McCauley J, and Nicholson W. Comparative Effectiveness Research Panel. North Carolina Institute of Medicine 2014 Annual Meeting, “Transforming the Health Care System: Improving Quality and Increasing Value,” Raleigh/Durham/RTP,NC October 14, 2014.

Tapp H.  Health Leaders National Webinar. Patient Experience: Drive Scores and Outcomes Through Shared Decision Making, Focused Elder Care, and Empathy Training. Panel Discussion. Broadcast nationally from CMC-Mercy auditorium, Charlotte NC. July 29th 2014.

Tapp H; Krist, A; Fernald, D and Fagnan, L. Panel Discussion. Powering Up: Lessons learned from Project Collaborations across Multiple PBRN Networks. Practice Based Research Conference June 30-July1 Bethesda, MD. 2014

RESEARCH SUPPORT

NIDA National institute on Drug Abuse                                 

$129,254.00                                                                             9/01/15-08/31/2016

Mid Southern Primary Care Network Node of the National Institute on drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network (CTH) Role: Site PI

PCORI

$2,103,917.00                                                                         07/01/13 - 08/01/16

Comparing Traditional and Participatory Dissemination of a Shared Decision Making InterventionThe objective is to determine what dissemination strategy most effectively increases practice level adoption of shared decision making, improves patient outcomes, and increases patient involvement in care decisions. Role: PI

Duke Endowment                                                                       

$50,000                                                                                   9/01/13 - 9/01/15

Patient Centered Medical Home: Health Coach Training, Patient Engagement & Patient Activation To develop a training program for health coaches with content focus of patient engagement and patient activation that will serve as a model for Patient Centered Medical Homes and will improve clinical outcomes and lower health delivery costs. Role: Site PI

ACS/Research Scholar Grant Chapel Hill                    7/01/2013 – 6/31/2018

Title: Improving Colon Cancer Screening for Diverse Populations

Goal: Address disparities in colorectal cancer screening in diverse, vulnerable primary care patient populations. Role CoI

TRACS                                                                                    09/01/12              

$6,000     10%

Pilot Study: Examining Dissemination and Implementation in a Practice-Based Research Network: A STAR Pilot (Alcohol Screening, Treatment, and Referral) Principal Investigator: Bryan J. Weiner, PhD

Role: CHS subcontract PI. Recruitment of providers for focus groups about to begin.

AHRQ                                    R18 HS-019946-01                09/30/2010 – 9/29/13

Role: Co- Investigator

Comparative Effectiveness of Asthma Interventions within an AHRQ PBRN

$1,926,514.00              60%

 NIH/NCMHD                          R01 MD-006127-01               09/30/2010 – 9/29/15

Role: Co- Investigator

A Transdisiplinary Approach to the Evaluation of Social Determinants of Health

220,461.00                  10%

NIH/NCMHD                          R24 MD-004930-02               09/30/2009 – 6/29/12 

Role: Co- Investigator

A Community Participatory Approach to Improving Health in a Hispanic Population

$686,787.00       10%

UNC Charlotte and CMC joint grant initiative.                 01/1/2009-01/1/10 

$50,000             100%

Role:  PI

Efficiency of Primary Care Delivery to Uninsured Hispanics in Charlotte NC. 

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Michele Birch, MD
Medical Student Education Director
Integrative Medicine Director


Other presentations
Birch M. “Role of Diet in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.” Integrative Oncology Symposium, Levine Cancer Institute, Carolinas Medical Center. February 2013 (Invited speaker)

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Dellyse Bright, MD
Urban Track Site Director/Associate Residency Director

Research Interests: Weight Management, Curriculum Innovation, Pediatrics

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Shane Gavin
Research Manager

Shane has over 13 years of healthcare experience and has worked in finance, data reporting, management and assisting with patient care.  Shane has managed a Tier I staff over the past 4 years and his team concentrates on Clinical Trials, Community and Outcomes Based Research.

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Darlyne Menscer, MD
Geriatrics Fellowship Associate Director

Research Interests: Health Policy and Graduate Medical Education issues.

Dr. Menscer currently serves as Chair of the AMA Council on Medical Education.  She has served on the Council since 2009 and has had many opportunities to explore these issues on a national level.

Whyte, KW, White, BP, Menscer, D: Science, Curriculum and Public Controversies.
Peer Review 2015; 17 (3):23-26.

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Lindsay E. Shade, MHS, PA-C
Clinical Trials and Quality Director

Lindsay attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and received her undergraduate degree in Exercise and Sport Science with a minor in Chemistry.  In 2006 she graduated from the Duke University Physician Assistant Program with a Master of Health Sciences degree.  She has practiced in Family Medicine in Charlotte, NC ever since and enjoys cultivating relationships with her patients.  Her special interests include pediatrics and women’s health as well as preventative health care.  Lindsay is also the Director of Clinical Trials and Quality within Carolinas HealthCare System’s Department Family Medicine Research Division.  Current projects focus on chronic disease management, improving participants’ outcomes, and using participatory methods including shared decision making.  In her spare time, she enjoys running, playing tennis, practicing yoga, making jewelry, and most of all watching Carolina basketball. 

Publications:

Kuhn L, Reeves K, Taylor Y, Tapp H, McWilliams A, Gunter A, Cleveland J, Dulin M. Planning for Action: The Impact of an Asthma Action Plan Decision Support Tool Integrated into an Electronic Health Record (EHR) at a Large Health Care System. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015 May-Jun;28(3):382-93. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2015.03.140248.

Tapp H, McWilliams A, Ludden T, Kuhn L, Taylor Y, Alkhazraji T, Halladay J, Derkowski D, Mohanan S, Dulin M. Comparing traditional and participatory dissemination of a shared decision making intervention (ADAPT-NC): a cluster randomized trial. Implement Sci. 2014 Oct 29;9:158. doi: 10.1186/s13012-014-0158-0.

Tapp H, Kuhn L, Alkhazraji T, Steuerwald M, Ludden T, Wilson S, Mowrer L, Mohanan S, Dulin MF. Adapting community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to the implementation of an asthma shared decision making intervention in ambulatory practices. J Asthma. 2014 May;51(4):380-90. doi: 10.3109/02770903.2013.876430. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

Presentations:

Shade, L. Incorporating the Patient Voice: Asthma Patient Care with Shared Decision Making.  Oral Presentation.  Invited.  Clinical Conference on Quality & Chronic Disease.  Durham, NC.  April 15, 2016.

Kuhn, L.  Physician Assistants as Researchers: Daring to Transform the Traditional Supervising Physician-PA Relationship.  Daring and Dangerous Ideas Oral Presentation.  Solicited.  North American Primary Care Research Group (NAPCRG) Practice Based Research Network (PBRN) Conference.  Bethesda, MD.  June 30, 2015.

 Kuhn, L; Dulin, M.  Planning for Action: The Integration of an Electronic Asthma Action Plan Tool into Canopy at Carolinas HealthCare System.  Gold Touchstone Award Oral Presentation.  Invited.  CHS Quality and Service Sharing Day.  Charlotte, NC.   August 6, 2014. 

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Brisa Urquieta de Hernandez
Project Manager, Research Division
Community Health Instructor

Research Interests: Health Disparities, Community Based Participatory Research, Urban and Social Geography, Community Development, Immigration, Interdisciplinary Collaborations, Program Evaluations

Ms. Hernandez serves as Program Manager in the Research Division at the Department of Family Medicine, Carolinas Healthcare System. Her main research interests include decreasing health disparities, development of community based health interventions and the use of qualitative research methods in working with underserved populations in Charlotte, NC. Ms. Hernandez is also one of the research team members of MAPPR, The Mecklenburg Area Partnership for Primary Care Research (www.mapprnc.org). She develops research projects with a group of primary care practices, community organizations, and academic partners with a mission to investigate questions related to community-based practice and how to improve the quality of primary care by enhancing the translation of research findings back into practice and community settings. One of our primary methods involves a model of research known as Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR). It involves using key stake holders, including medical professionals, community advocates, community members and patients as research partners. Ms. Hernandez is also a PhD Student in the department of Geography and Earth Sciences at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Her dissertation toping will focus on the impact of urban restructuring on health care and social service access and utilization by vulnerable populations.

Recent Publications:
Brenner AT, Getrich CM, Pignone M, Rhyne RL, Hoffman RM, McWilliams A, de Hernandez BU, Weaver MA, Tapp H, Harbi K, Reuland D. Comparing the effect of a decision aid plus patient navigation with usual care on colorectal cancer screening completion in vulnerable populations: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014 Jul 8;15(1):275.

 Schuch, J,  Urquieta de Hernandez, B, Williams, L. Smith, H, Sorensen, J, Furuseth, O and Dulin. M. Por Nuestros Ojos: Understanding Social Determinants of Health through the Eyes of Youth. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 2014; 8: pp. 197-205

 Lilli Mann, MPH; Florence M. Simán, MPH; Mario Downs;  Christina J. Sun, PhD, MS; Brisa Urquieta de Hernandez; Manuel García; Jorge Alonzo, JD; Emma Lawlor; Scott D. Rhodes, PhD, MPH. Reducing the impact of immigration enforcement policies to ensure the health of North Carolinians: Statewide community-level recommendations. North Carolina Medical Journal. In press.

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David Price, MD
Primary Care Sports Medicine Fellowship Director

Research Interests: Concussion and Sudden Cardiac Death.

Publications:
Bailey S, Ewing J, Drezner JA, Harmon KG, Price DE, Rao AL, Asif IM. Mental Health and Competitive Athletes: Measuring the Psychological Response of Being Diagnosed with Potentially Lethal Cardiac Disease. Abstract 2016

Asif IM, Price DE, Ewing A, Rao AL, Harmon KG, Drezner JA: The impact of diagnosis: measuring the psychological response to being diagnosed with serious or potentially lethal cardiac disease in young competitive athletes. Br J Sports Med 2015 Nov 26. pii: bjsports-2015-095560. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095560.

Asif IM, Price D, Fisher LA, Zakrajsek RA, Larsen LK, Raabe JJ, Bejar MP, Rao AL, Harmon KG, Drezner JA: Stages of psychological impact after diagnosis with serious or potentially lethal cardiac disease in young competitive athletes: A new model. J Electrocardiol 2015 May-Jun;48(3):298-310.

Asif IM, Price DE, Harmon KG, Salerno JC, Rao AL, Drezner JA: The Psychological Impact of Cardiovascular Screening in Young Athletes: Perspectives Across Age, Race, and Gender. Clin J Sport Med. 2015 Nov;25(6):464-71.

Van De Griend PJ, Patel P, Price DE. Getting back out on the Court. Poster. AMSSM Annual Conference, Hollywood, FL, 2015.

Price DE, Asif IM, Drezner JA: Education: A step toward the “how” of ECG screening in young athletes. Heart Rhythm, Reply to the Editor 2014, Pages e3-e4.

Vorobej CL, Price DE, Gaston G, Beaver CR. Total Recoil. Poster. AMSSM Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, 2014.

Asif I, Price D, Jenkins J, A Lett, Irwin M, Johnson S, Toresdahl B, Pelto H, Smith T, Harmon K, Drezner J: Psychological Implications of Advanced Cardiac Screening: No Differences in Anxiety Levels Based on Reason for False Positive Result. Br J Sports Med 2014; 48:563.  

Asif I, Price D, Fisher L, Zakrajsek R,  Raabe JJ; Bejar MO; Larsen LK; Rao AL;  Harmon KG, Drezner JA. Screening for Sudden Cardiac Death in Athletes: The Psychological Impact of Being Diagnosed with Potentially Lethal Disease. Br J Sports Med 2014; 48(7): 562.

Asif I, Price D, Fisher L, Zakrajsek R,  Raabe JJ; Bejar MO; Larsen LK; Rao AL;  Harmon KG, Drezner JA. The Psychological Impact of Being Diagnosed with Serious or Potentially Lethal Disease. Clin J Sport Med 2014; 24 (2), 173.

Price DE, McWilliams A, Asif IM, Martin A, Elliott SD, Dulin M, Drezner JA: Electrocardiography-inclusive screening strategies for detection of cardiovascular abnormalities in high school athletes. Heart Rhythm 2014 Mar;11(3):442-9.

National Presentations:

Patel P, Carek S, Gaston G, Price D. Purple Finger in a Baseball Player with Intermittent Ulnar-Sided Wrist Pain, AMSSM annual Convention, Dallas, Texas, 2016

Workshops:

Carolinas HealthCare System 2nd Annual Running Symposium, Program Director and lecturer, Charlotte, North Carolina, 11/5/15

Carolinas HealthCare System Running Symposium, Program Director and lecturer, Charlotte, North Carolina, 9/6/14

GRANTS:

Development and implementation of a real-time assessment and intervention for mTBI patients post-discharge from the emergency department. Funded $77,340 by CHS Trauma Center of Excellence (COE). 6/15. Co-Investigator

A preliminary investigation into the effects of participation in football on the adolescent brain for measures of neurocognitive function, mood and stress.  Funded $32,500 by CHS Trauma Center of Excellence (COE). 6/15. Principal Investigator

The Effect of Cumulative Subconcussive Impacts on Brain Function in Adolescent Football Players: Phase II. Funded $35,000 by CHS Trauma Center of Excellence (COE). 6/14. Principal Investigator. 

The Effect of Cumulative Subconcussive Impacts on Neurocognitive Function in Adolescent Football Players:  Pilot Project; funded $30,255 by CHS Trauma Center of Excellence (COE). 8/13. Principal Investigator

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