Gangrene is the death of tissue in part of the body.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Gangrene happens when a body part loses its blood supply. This may happen from injury, an infection, or other causes. You have a higher risk for gangrene if you have:
A serious injury
Blood vessel disease (such as arteriosclerosis, also called hardening of the arteries, in your arms or legs)
Suppressed immune system (for example, from HIV or chemotherapy)
The symptoms depend on the location and cause of the gangrene. If the skin is involved, or the gangrene is close to the skin, the symptoms may include:
Discoloration (blue or black if skin is affected; red or bronze if the affected area is beneath the skin)
Loss of feeling in the area (which may happen after severe pain in the area)
If the affected area is inside the body (such as gangrene of the gallbladder or gas gangrene), the symptoms may include:
Gas in tissues beneath the skin
General ill feeling
Low blood pressure
Persistent or severe pain
Signs and tests
The doctor may diagnose gangrene from a physical examination. In addition, the following tests and procedures may be used to diagnose gangrene:
Arteriogram (special x-ray to see any blockages in the blood vessels) to help plan treatment for blood vessel disease
Blood tests (white blood cell [WBC] count may be high)
CT scan to examine internal organs
Culture of the tissue or fluid from wounds to identify bacterial infection
Examining tissue under the microscope to look for cell death
Surgery to find and remove dead tissue
Gangrene requires urgent evaluation and treatment. In general, dead tissue should be removed to allow healing of the surrounding living tissue and prevent further infection. Depending on the area that has the gangrene, the person's overall condition, and the cause of the gangrene, treatment may include:
Amputating the body part that has gangrene
An emergency operation to find and remove dead tissue
An operation to improve blood supply to the area
Repeated operations to remove dead tissue (debridement)
Treatment in the intensive care unit (for severely ill patients)
What to expect depends on where the gangrene is in the body, how much gangrene there is, and the person's overall condition. If treatment is delayed, the gangrene is extensive, or the person has other significant medical problems, they may die.
Complications depend on where in the body the gangrene is, how much gangrene there is, the cause of the gangrene, and the person's overall condition. Complications can include:
Disability from amputation or removal of dead tissue
Prolonged wound healing or the need for reconstructive surgery, such as skin grafting
Calling your health care provider
Call your doctor immediately if:
A wound does not heal or there are frequent sores in an area
An area of your skin turns blue or black
There is foul-smelling discharge from any wound on your body
You have persistent, unexplained pain in an area
You have persistent, unexplained fever
Gangrene may be prevented if it is treated before the tissue damage is irreversible. Wounds should be treated properly and watched carefully for signs of infection (such as spreading redness, swelling, or drainage) or failure to heal.
People with diabetes or blood vessel disease should routinely examine their feet for any signs of injury, infection, or change in skin color and seek care as needed.
Zhang WW, Abou-Zamzam AM Jr. Lower extremity amputation: General considerations. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston W, eds. Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 114.
Linda Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.