Subacute thyroiditis is a rare condition. It is thought to be caused by a viral infection. The condition often occurs after a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, such as mumps and influenza.
Subacute thyroiditis occurs most often in middle-aged women with recent symptoms of a viral respiratory tract infection.
The most obvious symptom of subacute thyroiditis is pain in the neck. Sometimes the pain can spread (radiate) to the jaw or ears. Painful enlargement of the thyroid gland may last for weeks or months.
There may be low levels of antithyroid antibodies. Thyroid gland biopsy is usually not needed, but will show a type of inflammation characteristic of this condition. Lab tests should return to normal as the condition goes away.
The purpose of treatment is to reduce pain and inflammation and treat hyperthyroidism, if it occurs. Anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin or ibuprofen are used to control pain in mild cases.
More serious cases may need temporary treatment with steroids (for example, prednisone) to control inflammation. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism are treated with a class of medications called beta blockers (for example, propranolol, atenolol). Antithyroid drugs or thionamides are not effective in treating this condition.
The condition should improve on its own. However, the illness may last for months. Long-term or severe complications do not usually occur.
Subacute thyroiditis returns after treatment
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if:
You have symptoms of this disorder
You have thyroiditis and symptoms do not improve with treatment
Shehzad Topiwala, MD, Chief Consultant Endocrinologist, Premier Medical Associates, The Villages, FL. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.