Carolinas HealthCare System
Search Health Information   

Betaine

Also listed as: Trimethylglycine

Overview
Dietary Sources
Available Forms
 
How to Take It
Precautions
Possible Interactions
Supporting Research

Overview

Betaine, also called betaine anhydrous or trimethylglycine (TMG), is a substance that’s made in the body, where it’s involved in liver function, cellular reproduction, and helping make carnitine. It also helps the body metabolize homocysteine, an amino acid. Betaine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat a genetic condition where too much homocysteine builds up in the body.

Betaine has also been proposed as a way to lower homocysteine levels in people who don’t have the genetic disease. That’s because higher levels of homocysteine are associated with heart disease. But researchers don’t yet know exactly how high levels of homocysteine and heart disease are related.

Heart Disease

Studies suggest that betaine, along with vitamins B6 and B12 and folic acid, helps reduce higher levels of homocysteine. Having high levels of homocysteine is related to a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. However, scientists don't yet know whether homocysteine itself is harmful, or whether it is just an indicator of increased risk for heart disease. Some studies show that high levels of homocysteine may encourage atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).

Betaine supplements may increase cholesterol levels, which could work against any treatment for heart disease. If you are at risk for heart disease, your doctor may test levels of homocysteine in your blood. Ask your doctor whether taking supplements of betaine, folic acid, and the B vitamins makes sense for you.

Homocystinuria

Some people have a genetic condition called homocystinuria, in which homocysteine levels build up in the body. They are at much higher risk of developing heart disease and osteoporosis as early as their 20s. Betaine supplements are used to lower levels of homocysteine in people with this inherited health condition.

Liver Disease

Studies in rats suggest that betaine may help protect against harmful fatty deposits in the liver. These deposits can be caused by alcohol abuse, obesity, diabetes, and other causes. A few studies on people have been positive, but the studies were not all of good quality. More research is needed.

Dry Mouth

One study found that a toothpaste containing betaine helped relieve dry mouth.

Dietary Sources

Food sources of betaine include beets, broccoli, grains, shellfish, and spinach.

Available Forms

Betaine supplements are manufactured as a byproduct of sugar beet processing. They are available in powder, tablet, and capsule forms.

How to Take It

Pediatric

Betaine is not recommended for children unless it is prescribed by your child's health care provider to treat homocystinuria, a genetic condition.

Adult

Recommended doses of betaine vary depending on the condition being treated. Ask your health care provider to help you determine the right dose for you.

Betaine is usually taken with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12.

Precautions

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

Most side effects from betaine are mild and include diarrhea, stomach upset, and nausea.

Betaine can raise total cholesterol levels. People who are overweight, have heart disease, or are at risk for heart disease should not take betaine without talking to their health care provider.

People with kidney disease should not take betaine.

Possible Interactions

In people with kidney disease, betaine may interfere with drugs taken to lower cholesterol levels in the blood.

Supporting Research

Abdelmalek MF, Angulo P, Jorgensen RA, Sylvestre PB, Lindor KD. Betaine, a promising new agent for patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: results of a pilot study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001;96(9):2711-2717.

Alfthan G, Tapani K, Nissinen K, et al. The effect of low doses of betaine on plasma homocysteine in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2004;92:665-9.

Atkinson W, Elmslie J, Lever M, Chambers ST, George PM. Dietary and supplementary betaine: acute effects on plasma betaine and homocysteine concentrations under standard and postmethionine load conditions in healthy male subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(3):577-85.

Angulo P, Lindor KD. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver: present and emerging therapies. Semin Liver Dis. 2001;21(1):81-88.

Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Badkhsh S, Tuma DJ. The effect of betaine in reversing alcoholic steatosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1997;21(6):1100-1102.

Barak AJ, Beckenhauer HC, Tuma DJ. Betaine, ethanol, and the liver: a review. Alcohol. 1996; 13(4): 395-398.

Boushey CJ, et al. A quantitative assessment of plasma homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease. Probable benefits of increasing folic acid intakes. JAMA. Oct 4, 1995; 274(13): 1049-1057.

Eikelboom JW, Lonn E, Genest J, Hankey G, Yusuf S. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence. Ann Intern Med. 1999;131:363-375.

Hanje AJ, Fortune B, Song M, Hill D, McClain C. The use of selected nutrition supplements and complementary and alternative medicine in liver disease. Nutr Clin Pract. 2006 Jun;21(3):255-72. Review.

Kanbak G, Arslan OC, Dokumacioglu A, Kartkaya K, Inal ME. Effects of chronic ethanol consumption on brain synaptosomes and protective role of betaine. Neurochem Res. 2008;33(3):539-44.

Kendler BS. Supplemental conditionally essential nutrients in cardiovascular disease therapy. Cardiovasc Nurs. 2006 Jan-Feb;21(1):9-16. Review.

Kishi T, et al. Effect of betaine on S-adenosylmethionine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in a patient with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency and peripheral neuropathy. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1994; 17(5): 560-565.

Malinow MR, Bostom AG, Krauss RM. Homocyst(e)ine, diet, and cardiovascular disease. A statement for healthcare professionals from the nutrition committee, American Heart Association. Circulation. 1999;99:178-182.

Miglio F, Rovati LC, Santoro A, Senikar I. Efficacy and safety of oral betaine glucuronate in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A double-blind, randomized, parallel group, placebo-controlled prospective clinical study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(8):722-727.

Olthof MR, Bots ML, Katan MB, Verhoef P. Effect of folic acid and betaine supplementation on flow-mediated dilation: a randomized, controlled study in healthy volunteers. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006 Jun;1(2):e10.

Olthof MR, Van Vliet T, Boelsma E et al. Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women. J Nutr. 2003;133:4135-4138.

Olthof MR, Vliet TV, Verhoef P et al. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e135.

Robinson K, Arheart K, Refsum H, et al. Low circulating folate and vitamin B6 concentrations. Risk factors for stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease. Circulation. 1998;97:437-443.

Sarkar PK, Lambert LA. Aetiology and treatment of hyperhomocysteinaemia causing ischaemic stroke. Int J Clin Pract. 2001;55(4):262-268.

Schwab U, Torronen A, Toppinen L, et al. Betaine supplementation decreases plasma homocysteine concentrations but does not affect body weight, body composition, or resting energy expenditure in human subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76:961-7.

Schwahn BC, Wang XL, Mikael LG, Wu Q, Cohn J, Jiang H, Maclean KN, Rozen R. Betaine supplementation improves the atherogenic risk factor profile in a transgenic mouse model of hyperhomocysteinemia. Atherosclerosis. 2007;195(2):e100-7.

Soderling E, Le Bell A, Kirstila V, Tenovuo J. Betaine-containing toothpaste relieves subjective symptoms of dry mouth. Acta Odontol Scand. 1998;56:65-9.

Song Z, Deaciuc I, Zhou Z, Song M, Chen T, Hill D, McClain CJ. Involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in beneficial effects of betaine on high-sucrose diet-induced hepatic stenosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2007;293(4):G894-902.

Song Z, Zhou Z, Deaciuc I, Chen T, McClain CJ. Inhibition of adiponectin production by homocysteine: a potential mechanism for alcoholic liver disease. Hepatology. 2008;47(3):867-79.

Stampfer MJ, Malinow MR. Can lowering homocysteine levels reduce cardiovascular disease? N Engl J Med.1995; 332: 328-329.

van Guldener C, Stehouwer CD. Homocysteine-lowering treatment: an overview. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001;2(9):1449-1460.

Wilcken DE, et al. Homocystinuria due to cystathione beta-synthase deficiency--the effects of betaine treatment in pyridoxine-responsive patients. Metabolism. 1985; 34(12): 1115-1121.

Zeisel SH. Betaine supplementation and blood lipids: fact or artifact? Nutr Rev. 2006 Feb;64(2 Pt 1):77-9. Review.


Review Date: 4/2/2011
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com
RELATED INFORMATION
Supplements with Similar Uses
View List by Use
Uses of this Supplement
Atherosclerosis
Diabetes
Myocardial infarction
Obesity
Stroke
Drugs that Interact
Summary
Learn More About
Nutrition
About Carolinas HealthCare System
Who We Are
Leadership
Community Benefit
Corporate Financial Information
Diversity and Inclusion
Annual Report
Foundation
Patient Links
Pay Your Bill
Hospital Pre-Registration
Patient Rights
Privacy Policy
Financial Assistance
Quality & Value Reports
Insurance
Careers
Join Carolinas HealthCare System
Physician Careers

For Employees
Carolinas Connect
Connect with Us
Watch Carolinas HealthCare on YoutubeFollow Carolinas HealthCare on TwitterLike Carolinas HealthCare on FacebookContact Carolinas HealthCareJoin Carolinas HealthCare on LinkedInGo to our mobile website.