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Mumps


Signs and Symptoms
What Causes It?
Who's Most At Risk?
What to Expect at Your Provider's Office
 
Treatment Options
Prognosis and Possible Complications
Supporting Research

Mumps is a contagious disease that causes painful swelling of the parotid glands, the largest of the three major pairs salivary glands, located in the cheeks. It is caused by a virus and usually strikes children and teens. It usually goes away completely after running its course and complications are rare. However, some complications can be serious.

Before a mumps vaccine was introduced in 1967, it was a very common childhood illness. Now that most children are vaccinated, it is relatively rare for kids to get mumps. However, there have been a few outbreaks in recent years that affected several thousand children.

Signs and Symptoms

The following signs and symptoms often accompany mumps:

  • Swelling of the salivary glands in the face and jaw line
  • Fever, chills, headache, loss of appetite, and a general feeling of discomfort
  • Pain when chewing or swallowing
  • Inflammation of the testicles, which happens in up to 25% of men who get the disease after they reach puberty

Symptoms usually start 14 - 24 days after infection with the virus.

What Causes It?

Mumps is caused by a virus and spread through infected saliva. You can get mumps from breathing in droplets of the virus when an infected person has coughed or sneezed, or by sharing utensils.

Who's Most At Risk?

People who have not been vaccinated, particularly children and teens, are at risk for developing mumps. Mumps occur most often in children between the ages of 5 - 9.

What to Expect at Your Provider's Office

If you have symptoms of mumps, you should see your health care provider. Your health care provider will check for swelling in your face, especially below the ear and above the jaw. Your doctor may also do a blood test or a viral culture to see if the mumps virus is present. Routine hearing tests on young children can find any temporary or, rarely, permanent loss.

Treatment Options

Prevention

Vaccination is the key to preventing mumps. The live mumps virus is about 95% effective in preventing the disease. The vaccine is available by itself or in the combination vaccine of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR). Protection usually lasts at least 20 years with very few side effects. It is generally given at 15 months of age, but teens and adults can get it as well. Pregnant women should not be vaccinated, and people with fever or allergies to eggs should first talk with their health care provider.

Treatment Plan

If you have mumps, you should stay out of school or work for 7 - 10 days after symptoms start. That's when you are most contagious. You should eat soft foods, avoid acidic foods and beverages, such as citrus or tomato products, and take pain relievers as needed. Do not give aspirin to children under 18 because of the risk of Reye’s syndrome, a rare but serious illness. Give acetaminophen (Tylenol) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) instead as directed by your pediatrician.

A man with swollen testicles should rest in bed until symptoms get better. Relieve pain with ice packs, or by supporting the scrotum with cotton or gauze, or an athletic supporter.

A health care provider may do a hearing test on young children who develop mumps, to find any possible loss of hearing.

If the person develops pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas) with nausea and vomiting, the doctor may give IV fluids.

Drug Therapies

No medications other than pain relievers are needed for most cases of mumps.

Complementary and Alternative Therapies

Mumps usually gets better on its own, although you should always see your health care provider if you have symptoms of mumps. Treatment is aimed at relieving symptoms, and some CAM therapies may help.

Nutrition and Supplements

Adults and children may want to eat soft foods until they feel better and the swelling goes down. Make sure children get plenty of fluids.

These supplements may also help. Always ask your pediatrician before giving any herb or supplement to a child.

  • Probiotic supplement (containing Lactobacillus acidophilus), 5 - 10 billion CFUs (colony forming units) daily, to help maintain intestinal health. Some evidence suggests probiotics may also help strengthen the immune system, although there is no clear proof. If you take drugs to suppress your immune system or if you have a weakened immune system, ask your doctor before taking probiotics. Refrigerate your probiotic supplements for best results.
  • Bromelain, an enzyme made from pineapple, taken between meals, reduces inflammation. It is often used with turmeric (Curcuma longa), an anti-inflammatory that makes the effects of bromelain stronger. Both bromelain and turmeric can increase the risk of bleeding, especially if you take blood thinners such as warfarin (Coumadin), clopidogrel (Plavix), or aspirin. People who are allergic to pineapple should not take bromelain.

Herbs

Herbs are a way to strengthen and tone the body's systems. As with any therapy, you should work with your health care provider to diagnose your problem before starting any treatment. You may use herbs as dried extracts (capsules, powders, teas), glycerites (glycerine extracts), or tinctures (alcohol extracts).

Always ask your pediatrician before giving any herb or supplement to a child.

  • Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an antioxidant that may help strengthen the immune system. Use caffeine-free products. You may also prepare teas from the leaf of this herb.
  • Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) extract has antiviral properties and may help strengthen the immune system. Ask your health care provider before giving it to a child. Pregnant and breastfeeding women should not take elderberry. If you have an autoimmune disease, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, or if you take drugs to suppress your immune system, you should not take elderberry.
  • Soothing herbal teas may help decrease pain and swelling.

Homeopathy

Few studies have examined the effectiveness of specific homeopathic remedies. A professional homeopath, however, may recommend one or more of the following treatments for mumps based on his or her knowledge and clinical experience. Before prescribing a remedy, homeopaths take into account a person's constitutional type -- your physical, emotional, and intellectual makeup. An experienced homeopath assesses all of these factors when determining the most appropriate remedy for a particular individual.

  • Aconitum -- useful for childhood illnesses including the mumps, particularly when onset is sudden and the individual has a fever.
  • Belladonna -- most common treatment for mumps, particularly if it comes on rapidly.
  • Mercurius -- for mumps with swelling that is worse on the right side, excessive foul-smelling perspiration and salivation
  • Phytolacca -- for mumps in which glands feel swollen and hard
  • Pilocarpinum -- for mumps with excessive perspiration and salivation, as well as considerable thirst. This is considered by some homeopaths to be the best remedy for this purpose.
  • Pulsatilla -- for the later stages of mumps, especially in adults or children approaching puberty
  • Rhus toxicodendron -- for mumps with swelling that is worse on the left side

Prognosis and Possible Complications

Most cases of mumps get better without any lasting problems. Complications are more likely in teens and adults. These may include encephalitis (inflammation of the brain and its membranous coverings), deafness, orchitis, pancreatitis, and miscarriage in early pregnancy.

Supporting Research

Cabrera C, Artacho R, Gimenez R. Beneficial effects of green tea -- a review. J Am Coll Nutr. 2006;25(2):79-99.

Clancy RL, Gleeson M, Cox A, et al. Reversal in fatigued athletes of a defect in interferon gamma secretion after administration of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40(4):351-4.

Cooper AD, Wijdicks EF, Sampathkumar P. Mumps encephalitis: return with a vengeance. Rev Neural Dis. 2007;4(2):100-2.

Duszczyk E, Krynicka-Czech B, Talarek E, Popielska J. Mumps -- an underestimated disease. Przegl Epidemiol. 2006;60(1):99-104.

Hale LP, Greer PK, Trinh CT, James CL. Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(4):783-93.

Hviid A, Rubin S, Muhlemann K. Mumps. Lancet. 2008;371(9616):932-44

Kancheria VS. Mumps resurgence in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006; 118(4):938-41

LaValle JB, Krinsky DL, Hawkins EB, et al. Natural Therapeutics Pocket Guide. Hudson, OH:LexiComp; 2000: 452-454.

Opal S, Arumugam V. Mumps. Ferri: Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2008, 1st ed. Elsevier; Philadelphia, Pa.

Rotsein OD. Oxidants and antioxidant therapy. Crit Care Clin. 2001;17(1):239-47.

Wang HK. The therapeutic potential of flavonoids. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2000;9(9):2103-19.

Waxman MA. Update on emerging infections from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Multistate outbreak of mumps -- United States., January 1 - May 2, 2006. Ann Emerg Med. 2006;48(3):332-5.

Yoon JH, Baek SJ. Molecular targets of dietary polyphenols with anti-inflammatory properties. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46(5):585-96.

Youngster I, Kozer E, Lazarovitch Z, Broide E, Goldman M. Probiotics and the immunological response to infant vaccinations: a prospective, placebo controlled pilot study. Arch Dis Child. 2011 Apr;96(4):345-9.

Zakay-Rones Z, Thom E, Wollan T, Wadstein J. Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections. J Int Med Res. 2004;32(2):132-40.


Review Date: 6/18/2012
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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