Ovarian overproduction of androgens is a condition in which the female ovaries make too much testosterone. This leads to the development of male characteristics in a woman. Other hormones, called androgens, from other parts of the body can also cause the development of male characteristics in women.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
In healthy women, the ovaries and adrenal glands produce about 40 - 50% of the body's testosterone. Both tumors of the ovaries and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can cause excess androgen production.
Cushing's disease, an abnormality in the pituitary gland, causes excess amounts of corticosteroids, which cause masculine body changes in women. Also, tumors in the adrenal glands can cause overproduction of androgens and lead to male body characteristics in women.
Increase in body hair in a male pattern (hirsutism) such as on the face, chin, and abdomen
Clitoromegaly (enlargement of the clitoris)
Deepening of the voice
Increase in muscle mass
Temporal balding (thinning hair and hair loss)
Signs and tests
Your health care provider will perform a physical exam. Any blood and imaging tests ordered will depend on your specific symptoms, but may include:
DHEA blood test
Prolactin (if periods are infrequent or absent) test
Total cholesterol test
TSH test (if there is hair loss)
Treatment depends on the problem that is causing the increased androgen production. Medications can be given to decrease hair production in patients who have excess body hair (hirsutism) or to regulate menstrual cycles. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove an ovarian or adrenal tumor.
The success of the treatment depends on what caused the excess androgen production. If the condition is caused by an ovarian tumor, surgical removal of the tumor may correct the problem. Most ovarian tumors are not cancerous (benign), and will not come back after they've been removed.
In polycystic ovary syndrome, the following can reduce symptoms caused by increased androgen levels:
Regular vigorous exercise
Infertility and complications during pregnancy may occur.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome may be at increased risk for:
High blood pressure
There is no known prevention. Maintaining a normal weight through healthy diet and regular exercise can reduce your chances of any long-term complications.
Bulun SE. The physiology and pathology of the female reproductive axis. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 17.
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine; Susan Storck, MD, FACOG, Chief, Eastside Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Redmond, Washington; Clinical Teaching Faculty, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.