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  • Allergic reactions 05/06/2012
    Allergic reactions are sensitivities to substances called allergens that come into contact with the skin, nose, eyes, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They can be breathed into the lungs, swallowed, or injected. Considerations: Allergic reactions are common. The immune response that causes an allergic reaction is similar to the response that causes hay fever. Most reactions happen soon after contact with an allergen. Many allergic reactions are mild, while others can be severe and life-threatening.
  • Amputation - traumatic 07/28/2010
    Loss of a body part Considerations: If an accident or trauma results in complete amputation (the body part is totally severed), the part sometimes can be reattached, especially when proper care is taken of the severed part and stump. In a partial amputation, some soft-tissue connection remains.
  • Animal bites 01/08/2012
    Bites - animals Considerations: Bites that result in puncture wounds are more likely to become infected. You might have a puncture wound if an animal's tooth went through your skin during the bite. An animal bite is also more likely to become infected in those who have: A weakened immune system due to medicines or disease Diabetes Peripheral artery disease Some animals are infected with bacteria that can cause rabies.
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury 08/14/2011
    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) Considerations: The knee joint is located where the end of the thigh bone (femur) meets the top of the shin bone (tibia). Four main ligaments connect these two bones: Medial collateral ligament (MCL) runs along the inside of the knee and prevents the knee from bending out.
  • Anterior knee pain 06/13/2010
    Runner's knee; Patellofemoral pain; Patellar tendinitis; Tendinitis - patellar; Jumper's knee Considerations: Your kneecap (patella) sits over the front of your knee joint. As you bend or straighten your knee, the underside of the patella glides over the bones that make up the knee. Strong tendons help attach the patella to the bones and muscles that surround the knee.
  • Bleeding 02/11/2011
    Blood loss; Open injury bleeding Considerations: Always seek emergency assistance for severe bleeding, and if internal bleeding is suspected.
  • Breathing difficulties - first aid 07/16/2011
    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid Considerations: Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency (other than feeling slightly winded from normal activity such as exercise).
  • Broken bone 05/02/2009
    Bone - broken; Fracture; Stress fracture Considerations: It is hard to tell a dislocated bone from a broken bone.
  • Broken or knocked out tooth 02/22/2012
    Teeth - broken; Tooth - knocked out Considerations: A permanent tooth that is knocked out can sometimes be reimplanted. In most cases, only permanent, adult teeth are reimplanted into the mouth. Baby teeth are usually left out. Causes: Tooth accidents are commonly caused by: Accidental falls Sports-related trauma Fighting Car accidents Biting on hard food Symptoms: First Aid: Save any tooth that has been knocked out.
  • Bruise 05/01/2011
    A bruise is an area of skin discoloration. A bruise occurs when small blood vessels break and leak their contents into the soft tissue beneath the skin. Considerations: There are three types of bruises: Subcutaneous -- beneath the skin Intramuscular -- within the belly of the underlying muscle Periosteal -- bone bruise Bruises can last from days to months, with the bone bruise being the most severe and painful. Causes: Bruises are often caused by falls, sports injuries, car accidents, or blows received by other people or objects.
  • Burns 01/13/2010
    Second degree burn; First degree burn; Third degree burn Considerations: Before giving first aid, evaluate how extensively burned the person is and try to determine the depth of the most serious part of the burn.
  • Chemical burn or reaction 02/02/2011
    Burn from chemicals Considerations: Chemical exposure is not always obvious. You should suspect chemical exposure if an otherwise healthy person becomes ill for no apparent reason, particularly if an empty chemical container is found nearby. Exposure to chemicals at work over a long period of time can cause changing symptoms as the chemical builds up in the person's body.
  • Choking - adult or child over 1 year 07/16/2011
    Heimlich maneuver - adult or child over 1 year Considerations: A choking person's airway may be completely or partially blocked, so that not enough oxygen reaches the lungs. A complete blockage is a medical emergency. A partial blockage can quickly become life threatening if the person cannot properly breathe in and out.
  • Choking - infant under 1 year 07/16/2011
    Choking is when someone can't breathe because food, a toy, or other object is blocking the airway (throat or windpipe). This article discusses choking in infants. Considerations: Choking may result from a complete or partial blockage of the airway. A complete blockage is a medical emergency. A partial blockage can quickly become life threatening if the person cannot breathe enough. Permanent brain damage can occur in as little as 4 minutes when a person does not get enough air.
  • Choking - unconscious adult or child over 1 year 07/16/2011
    Heimlich maneuver - unconscious adult or child over 1 year Considerations: Choking may result from a complete or partial blockage of the airway. A complete blockage is a medical emergency.
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