Skin dryness, itching/scratching, leading to skin infection
Weakening of the bones, fractures, joint disorders
Treatment of chronic kidney disease may delay or prevent progression to ESRD. Some cases may not be preventable.
Himmelfarb J, Ikizler TA. Hemodialysis. N Engl J Med. 2010 Nov 4;363(19):1833-45. Review. PubMed PMID: 21047227.
Tonelli M, Pannu N, Manns B. Oral phosphate binders in patients with kidney failure. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 8;362(14):1312-24.
Abboud H, Henrich WL. Clinical practice. Stage IV chronic kidney disease. NEngl J Med. 2010 Jan 7;362(1):56-65.
KDOQI. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline and Clinical Practice Recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease: 2007 update of hemoglobin target. Am J Kidney Dis. 2007;50:471-530.
KDOQI: National Kidney Foundation. II. Clinical practice guidelines and clinical practice recommendations for anemia in chronic kidney disease in adults. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006;47(5 Suppl 3):S16-S85.
Palmer SC, Navaneethan SD, Craig JC, Johnson DW, Tonelli M, Garg AX, et al. Meta-analysis: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in patients with chronic kidney disease. Ann Intern Med. 2010;153:23-33.
David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc., andHerbert Y. Lin, MD, PHD, Nephrologist, Massachusetts General Hospital; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School.