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Subcutaneous emphysema

Definition

Subcutaneous emphysema occurs when air gets into tissues under the skin. This usually occurs in the skin covering the chest wall or neck, but can also occur in other parts of the body.

Alternative Names

Crepitus; Subcutaneous air; Tissue emphysema

Considerations

Subcutaneous emphysema can often be seen as a smooth bulging of the skin. When a health care provider feels (palpates) the skin, it produces an unusual crackling sensation as the gas is pushed through the tissue.

Common Causes

This is a rare condition. When it does occur, possible causes include:

  • Collapsed lung (pneumothorax), often occurring with a rib fracture
  • Facial bone fracture
  • Ruptured bronchial tube
  • Ruptured esophagus

This condition can happen due to:

  • Blunt trauma
  • Forceful vomiting" (Boerhaave's syndrome)
  • Gun shot wounds
  • Stabbing
  • Rarely after medical procedures such as endoscopy, a central venous line, intubation, and bronchoscopy

Air can also be found in between skin layers on the arms and legs or torso during certain infections, including gas gangrene.

Call your health care provider if

Most of the conditions that cause subcutaneous emphysema are very severe. Sometimes a hospital stay is needed. Medical staff should already be involved in most cases.


Review Date: 11/17/2010
Reviewed By: Eric Perez, MD, Department of Emergency Medicine, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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