Leptospirosis is a rare and severe bacterial infection that occurs when people are exposed to certain environments.
Weil disease; Icterohemorrhagic fever; Swineherd's disease; Rice-field fever; Cane-cutter fever; Swamp fever; Mud fever; Hemorrhagic jaundice; Stuttgart disease; Canicola fever
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Leptospirosis is caused by exposure to several types of the
Leptospira bacteria, which can be found in fresh water that has been contaminated by animal urine. It occurs in warmer climates.
It is not spread from person to person, except in vary rare cases when it is transmitted through breast milk or from a mother to her unborn child.
Risk factors include:
Occupational exposure -- farmers, ranchers, slaughterhouse workers, trappers, veterinarians, loggers, sewer workers, rice field workers, and military personnel
Recreational activities -- fresh water swimming, canoeing, kayaking, and trail biking in warm areas
Household exposure -- pet dogs, domesticated livestock, rainwater catchment systems, and infected rodents
Leptospirosis is rare in the continental United States. Hawaii has the highest number of cases in the United States.
Symptoms can take 2 - 26 days (average 10 days) to develop, and may include:
Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
Less common symptoms include:
Abnormal lung sounds
Enlarged lymph glands
Enlarged spleen or liver
Sore throat Signs and tests
The blood is tested for antibodies to the bacteria.
Other tests that may be done:
Medications to treat leptospirosis include:
Complicated or serious cases may need supportive care or treatment in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU).
The outlook is generally good. However, a complicated case can be life-threatening if it is not treated promptly.
Complications Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction when penicillin is given
Severe bleeding Calling your health care provider
Contact your health care provider if you have any symptoms of, or risk factors for, leptospirosis.
Avoid areas of stagnant water, especially in tropical climates. If you are exposed to a high risk area, taking doxycycline or amoxicillin may decrease your risk of developing this disease.
Ko AI. Leptospirosis. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds.
Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 344.
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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