Paraphimosis occurs when the foreskin of an uncircumcised male cannot be pulled back over the head of the penis.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Causes of paraphimosis include:
Direct trauma to the area
Failure to return the foreskin to its normal location after urination or washing (most common in hospitals and nursing homes)
Infection, which may be due to poor personal hygiene
Uncircumcised males, and those who may not have been correctly or completely circumcised, are at risk.
Paraphimosis occurs most often in children and the elderly.
The foreskin is pulled back (retracted) behind the rounded tip of the penis (glans) and stays there. The retracted foreskin and glans become swollen. This makes it difficult to return the foreskin to its extended position.
Inability to pull the retracted foreskin over the head of the penis
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.