There is no cure for homocystinuria. However, just under half of people respond to high doses of vitamin B6 (also known as pyridoxine).
Those who do respond will need to take vitamin B6 supplements for the rest of their lives. Those who do not respond will need to eat a low-methionine diet. Most will need to be treated with trimethylglycine (a medication also known as betaine).
Neither a low-methionine diet nor medication will improve existing intellectual disability. Medication and diet should be closely supervised by a physician who has experience treating homocystinuria.
Taking a folic acid supplement and adding cysteine (an amino acid) to the diet are helpful.
Although no cure exists for homocystinuria, vitamin B6 therapy can help about half of people affected by the condition.
If the diagnosis is made while a patient is young, starting a low methionine diet quickly can prevent some intellectual disability and other complications of the disease. For this reason, some states screen for homocystinuria in all newborns.
Patients whose blood homocysteine levels continue to rise are at increased risk for blood clots. Clots can cause serious medical problems and shorten lifespan.
Most serious complications result from blood clots. These episodes can be life threatening.
Dislocated lenses of the eyes can seriously damage vision. Lens replacement surgery should be considered.
Intellectual disability is a serious consequence of the disease. However, it can be reduced if diagnosed early.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if you or a family member shows symptoms of this disorder, especially if you have a family history of homocystinuria. Also call if you have a family history and are planning to have children.
Genetic counseling is recommended for people with a family history of homocystinuria who want to have children. Intrauterine diagnosis of homocystinuria is available. This involves culturing amniotic cells or chorionic villi to test for cystathionine synthase (the enzyme that is missing in homocystinuria).
Rezvani I, Melvin JJ. Defects in metabolism of amino acids. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme J, Schor N, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 79.
Chad Haldeman-Englert, MD, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section on Medical Genetics, Winston-Salem, NC. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.