Penetrating wounds (such as bullet or stab wounds)
The amount of injury to the bladder depends on how full the bladder was at the time of injury and what caused the injury.
Traumatic injury to the bladder is uncommon. Only about 8 - 10% of pelvic fractures lead to bladder injury. Because the bladder is located within the bony structures of the pelvis, it is protected from most outside forces. Injury may occur if there is a blow to the pelvis severe enough to break the bones and cause bone fragments to penetrate the bladder wall.
Other causes of bladder or urethra injury include:
Surgeries of the pelvis or groin (including hernia repair and hysterectomy)
Tears, cuts, bruises, and other injuries to the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the body) -- most common in men.
Straddle injuries (direct force that injures the area behind the scrotum)
Deceleration injury (for example, a motor vehicle accident that occurs when you have a full bladder and are wearing a seatbelt)
Injury to the bladder or urethra may cause urine to leak into the abdomen, leading to infection (peritonitis). This type of injury is more common if the bladder is full.
An examination of the genitals may show injury to the urethra. If the health care provider suspects an injury, an x-ray of the urethra using dye (retrograde urethrogram) should be done to show the structure of the lower urinary tract.
Examination may also show:
Bladder injury or swollen (distended) bladder
Other signs of pelvic injury, such as bruising over the penis, scrotum, and perineum
Signs of hemorrhage or shock, including decreased blood pressure -- especially in cases of pelvic fracture
Tenderness and bladder fullness when touched (caused by urine retention)
Tender and unstable pelvic bones
Urine in the abdominal cavity
A catheter (tube that drains urine from the body) may be inserted once an injury has been ruled out. An x-ray of the bladder using dye to highlight any damage can then be done.
The goals of treatment are to:
Repair the injury
Emergency treatment of bleeding or shock may include:
Intravenous (IV) fluids
Monitoring in the hospital
Treatment of peritonitis (inflammation of the abdominal cavity) may include emergency surgery to repair the injury and drain the urine from the abdominal cavity. Antibiotics may be given to treat peritonitis and to prevent urinary tract infections.
Surgical repair of the injury is usually successful. The bladder may be drained by a catheter through the urethra or the abdominal wall over a period of days to weeks. This will prevent urine from building up in the bladder, allowing the injured bladder or urethra to heal. This also prevents swelling in the urethra from blocking urine flow.
If the urethra has been cut, a urological specialist can place a catheter. If this cannot be done, a tube will be inserted through the abdominal wall and directly into the bladder. This is called a suprapubic tube. It will be left in place until swelling goes away and the urethra can be surgically repaired. This typically takes 3 - 6 months.
Traumatic injury of the bladder and the urethra may range from minor to major and life-threatening. There may be severe, immediate, or long-term complications.
Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director and Director of Didactic Curriculum, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington; Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.