Schizoaffective disorder is a mental condition that causes both a loss of contact with reality (psychosis) and mood problems.
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The exact cause of schizoaffective disorder is unknown. Changes in genes and chemicals in the brain (neurotransmitters) may play a role. Some experts do not believe it is a separate disorder from schizophrenia.
Schizoaffective disorder is believed to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition more often than men. Schizoaffective disorder tends to be rare in children.
The symptoms of schizoaffective disorder are different in each person. Often, people with schizoaffective disorder seek treatment for problems with mood, daily function, or abnormal thoughts.
Psychosis and mood problems may occur at the same time, or by themselves. The course of the disorder may involve cycles of severe symptoms followed by improvement.
The symptoms of schizoaffective disorder can include:
Changes in appetite and energy
Disorganized speech that is not logical
False beliefs (delusions), such as thinking someone is trying to harm you (paranoia) or thinking that special messages are hidden in common places (delusions of reference)
Lack of concern with hygiene or grooming
Mood that is either too good, or depressed or irritable
Problems with concentration
Sadness or hopelessness
Seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations)
Speaking so quickly that others cannot interrupt you
Signs and tests
Your health care provider will do a psychiatric evaluation to find out about your behavior and symptoms. You may be referred to a psychiatrist to confirm the diagnosis.
To be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder, you must have psychotic symptoms during a period of normal mood for at least 2 weeks.
The combination of psychotic and mood symptoms in schizoaffective disorder can be seen in other illnesses, such as bipolar disorder. Extreme disturbance in mood is an important part of schizoaffective disorder.
Your health care provider should consider and rule out medical, psychiatric, and drug-related conditions that cause psychotic or mood symptoms before making a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder. For example, psychotic or mood disorder symptoms can occur in people who:
Abuse cocaine, amphetamines, or phencyclidine (PCP)
Have seizure disorders
Take steroid medications
Treatment can vary. In general, your health care provider will prescribe medications to improve your mood and treat psychosis.
Antipsychotic medications are used to treat psychotic symptoms.
Antidepressant medications or "mood stabilizers" may be prescribed to improve mood.
Talk therapy can help with creating plans, solving problems, and maintaining relationships. Group therapy can help with social isolation.
Support and work training may be helpful for work skills, relationships, money management, and living situations.
People with schizoaffective disorder have a greater chance of going back to their previous level of function than do people with most other psychotic disorders. However, long-term treatment is often needed, and results can vary from person to person.
Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood disorders. These include:
Abuse of drugs
Problems following medical treatment and therapy
Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending sprees, overly sexual behavior)
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care or mental health provider if you or someone you know is experiencing any of the following:
Depression with feelings of hopelessness or helplessness
Inability to care for basic personal needs
Increase in energy and involvement in risky behavior that is sudden and not normal for you (for instance, going days without sleeping and feeling no need for sleep)
Strange or unusual thoughts or perceptions
Symptoms that get worse or do not improve with treatment
Thoughts of suicide or of harming others
Freudenreich O, Weiss AP, Goff DC. Psychosis and schizophrenia. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, Fava M, Biederman J, Rauch SL, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical Psychiatry. 1st ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier;2008:chap 28.
Fred K. Berger, MD, DLFAPA, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, UCSD School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.