Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is scar tissue that forms in parts of the kidney called glomeruli. The glomeruli serve as filters, helping rid the body of unnecessary or harmful substances. Each kidney has thousands of glomeruli. One glomeruli is called a glomerulus.
"Focal" means that some of the glomeruli become scarred, while others remain normal. "Segmental" means that only part of an individual glomerulus is damaged.
Segmental glomerulosclerosis; Focal sclerosis with hyalinosis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
The cause of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is usually unknown.
The condition affects both children and adults. Men and boys are affected slightly more often than women and girls, and it also occurs more often in African Americans. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis causes about 20 - 25% of all cases of nephrotic syndrome.
Swelling, called generalized edema, from fluids held in the body
Signs and tests
The health care provider will perform a physical examination. This may detect tissue swelling and high blood pressure. Signs of kidney (renal) failure and excess fluid may develop as the condition gets worse.
David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; and Herbert Y Lin, MD, PhD, Nephrologist, Massachusetts General Hospital; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.