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Tyrosine

Also listed as: L-tyrosine

Overview
Dietary Sources
Available Forms
How to Take It
 
Precautions
Possible Interactions
Supporting Research

Overview

Tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid the body makes from another amino acid called phenylalanine. It is a building block for several important brain chemicals called neurotransmitters, including epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Neurotransmitters help nerve cells communicate and influence mood. Tyrosine also helps produce melanin, the pigment responsible for hair and skin color. It helps in the function of organs responsible for making and regulating hormones, including the adrenal, thyroid, and pituitary glands. It is involved in the structure of almost every protein in the body.

It's rare to be deficient in tyrosine. Low levels have been associated with low blood pressure, low body temperature, and an underactive thyroid. This does not mean, however, that taking tyrosine supplements will help any of these conditions.

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

This serious condition occurs in people whose bodies can't use the amino acid phenylalanine. It can lead to brain damage, including mental retardation. People with PKU must avoid any phenylalanine in their diets. Because tyrosine is made from phenylalanine, people with PKU can be deficient in tyrosine. Tyrosine is used in protein supplements for people with PKU, but most doctors don't recommend more tyrosine supplements. If you have PKU, your doctor will determine if you need more tyrosine and how much.

Stress

Tyrosine is involved in the production of the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine. Some researchers believe that, under stress, the body isn't able to make enough tyrosine from phenylalanine. Some animal and human studies suggest that tyrosine supplements may help improve memory and performance under psychological stress, but more research is needed.

Sleep deprivation

One study suggests that taking tyrosine may help you be more alert after sleep deprivation, but more research is needed.

Other

Some athletes claim that tyrosine helps their performance. However, there is no proof that this claim is true or safe.

Because tyrosine helps the body produce the mood-influencing chemical dopamine, and because people who are depressed often have low levels of tyrosine, researchers thought that tyrosine might help treat depression. However, studies have found that it has no effect.

Dietary Sources

Tyrosine is found in soy products, chicken, turkey, fish, peanuts, almonds, avocados, bananas, milk, cheese, yogurt, cottage cheese, lima beans, pumpkin seeds, and sesame seeds.

Available Forms

Tyrosine is also available as a dietary supplement, in capsule or tablet form.

How to Take It

Take tyrosine supplements at least 30 minutes before meals, divided into 3 daily doses. Taking vitamins B6, B9 (folate), and copper along with tyrosine helps the body convert tyrosine into important brain chemicals.

Pediatric

Don't give tyrosine supplements to a child without first asking your doctor.

Adult

Doses vary. Talk to your nutritionist or doctor about what dose is right for you. To treat symptoms of sleep deprivation, one study used 150 mg per kilogram of body weight per day.

Precautions

Because of the potential for side effects and interactions with medications, you should take dietary supplements only under the supervision of a knowledgeable health care provider.

People who have migraine headaches should avoid tyrosine, as it can trigger migraine headaches and stomach upset.

People with hyperthyroidism or Graves disease should avoid tyrosine supplements because tyrosine may increase levels of thyroid hormone.

Possible Interactions

If you are being treated with any of the following medications, you should not use tyrosine supplements without first talking to your health care provider.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) -- Tyrosine may cause a severe increase in blood pressure in people taking antidepressant medications known as MAOIs. This rapid increase in blood pressure, also called "hypertensive crisis,” can lead to a heart attack or stroke. People taking MAOIs should avoid foods and supplements containing tyrosine. MAOIs include:

  • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
  • Phenelzine (Nardil)
  • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
  • Selegiline

Thyroid hormone -- Tyrosine is a precursor to thyroid hormone, so it might raise levels too high when taken with synthetic thyroid hormones.

Levodopa (L-dopa) -- Tyrosine should not be taken at the same time as levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson's disease. Levodopa may interfere with the absorption of tyrosine.

Supporting Research

Fernstrom JD. Can nutrient supplements modify brain function? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(6 Suppl):1669S-1675S.

Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Gonzalez A, Beller NA, Hoffman MW, Olson M, Purpura M, Jäger R. The effects of acute and prolonged CRAM supplementation on reaction time and subjective measures of focus and alertness in healthy college students. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2010 Dec 15;7:39.

Kliegman R, Behrman R, Jenson H, Stanton B. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.

Mahoney CR, Castellani J, Kramer FM, Young A, Lieberman HR. Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure. Physiol Behav. 2007 May 22; [Epub ahead of print]

Meyers S. Use of neurotransmitter precursors for treatment of depression. Altern Med Rev. 2000;5(1):64-71.

Parry BL. The role of central serotonergic dysfunction in the aetiology of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: therapeutic implications. CNS Drugs. 2001;15(4):277-285.

Poustie VJ, Rutherford P. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD001507.

Tumilty L, Davison G, Beckmann M, Thatcher R. Oral tyrosine supplementation improves exercise capacity in the heat. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Mar 25. [Epub ahead of print]

van Spronsen FJ, van Rijn M, Bekhof J, Koch R, Smit PG. Phenylketonuria: tyrosine supplementation in phenylalanine-restricted diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001;73(2):153-157.

Webster D, Wildgoose J. Tyrosine supplementation for phenylketonuria. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Aug 4;(8):CD001507. Review.

Yehuda S. Possible anti-Parkinson properties of N-(alpha-linolenoyl) tyrosine. A new molecule. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002;72(1-2):7-11.


Review Date: 7/17/2011
Reviewed By: Steven D. Ehrlich, NMD, Solutions Acupuncture, a private practice specializing in complementary and alternative medicine, Phoenix, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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